Nura Bala, Ibrahim Kamaruddin, Madzlan Napiah


Polymer modified bitumen (PMB) has been used for many years to improve the performance of asphalt concretes against premature pavement defects. In this research, modified samples were prepared with 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 6% Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) polymer by weight of bitumen binder. The influence of LLDPE polymer was evaluated through binder properties test which includes penetration, softening point, storage stability, temperature susceptibility, rutting, fatigue and thermal oxidative aging resistance from a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) measurements at a temperature of 20 OC to 60 OC. Results show that LLDPE polymer has a significant effect on binder properties. Penetration decreases and softening point increases with increasing LLDPE content on the modified binder after aging, which implies LLDPE improves the thermo oxidative aging resistance of the binder. Furthermore, the storage stability test shows that at higher LLDPE concentrations phase separation may occur. DSR analysis shows that modified binders have lower temperature susceptibility and higher aging resistance with increased stiffness and elastic behavior compared with unmodified binders. In addition, modified binders show enhanced resistance against high temperature rutting and at low temperature fatigue performance. It was found that the optimum LLDPE content is 6%.


Bitumen, polymer, aging, rheology, storage stability

Full Text:



Airey, G. D. 2002. Use of Black Diagrams to Identify Inconsistencies in Rheological Data. Road Materials and Pavement Design. 3(4): 403-424.

J. Yu, L. Wang, X. Zeng, S. Wu, and B. Li. 2007. Effect of Montmorillonite on Properties of Styrene–butadiene–styrene Copolymer Modified Bitumen. Polymer Engineering & Science. 47: 1289-1295.

S. Dessouky, C. Reyes, M. Ilias, D. Contreras, and A. Papagiannakis. 2011. Effect of Pre-heating Duration and Temperature Conditioning on the Rheological Properties of Bitumen. Construction and Building Materials. 25: 2785-2792.

C. Fang, T. Li, Z. Zhang, and D. Jing. 2008. Modification of Asphalt by Packaging Waste‐polyethylene. Polymer Composite. 29: 500-505.

K. H. Mustafa, M. M. A. Aziz, M. Rosli, A. A. Z. Hainin, and M. N. M. Warid. 2016. A Review on Crack Relief Layer (crl) in Roads and Highways. Jurnal Teknologi. 78(7–3): 45–52.

G. D. Airey. 2003. Rheological Properties of Styrene Butadiene Styrene Polymer Modified Road Bitumens. Fuel. 82: 1709-1719.

T. A. Khan and D. Sharma. 2011. Effect of Waste Polymer Modifier on the Properties of Bituminous Concrete Mixes. Construction and Building Materials. 25: 3841-3848.

N. Bala and I. Kamaruddin. 2016. Physical and Storage Stability Properties of Linear Low Density Polyethylene at Optimum Content. Engineering Challenges for Sustainable Future: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Civil, Offshore and Environmental Engineering (ICCOEE 2016, Malaysia. 395.

R.-m. Ho, A. Adedeji, D. W. Giles, D. A. Hajduk, C. W. Macosko, and F. S. Bates. 1997. Microstructure of Triblock Copolymers in Asphalt Oligomers. Journal of Polymer Science Part B Polymer Physics. 35: 2857-2877.

M. Cortizo, D. Larsen, H. Bianchetto, and J. Alessandrini. 2004. Effect of the Thermal Degradation of SBS Copolymers During the Ageing of Modified Asphalts. Polymer Degradation and Stability. 86: 275-282.

F. Navarro, P. Partal, M. García-Morales, M. Martín-Alfonso, F. Martinez-Boza, C. Gallegos. 2009. Bitumen Modification with Reactive and Non-reactive (Virgin and Recycled) Polymers: A Comparative Analysis. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 15: 458-464.

J. Zhu, B. Birgisson, and N. Kringos. 2014. Polymer Modification of Bitumen: Advances and Challenges. European Polymer Journal. 54: 18-38.

E. Shaffie, J. Ahmad, A. K. Arshad, D. Kamarun, and H. Awang. 2016. Investigation on Rutting Performance of Nanopolyacrylate and Natural Rubber Latex Polymer Modified Asphalt Binder Mixes. Jurnal Teknologi. 78: 11-15.

A. Al-Hadidy and T. Yi-qiu. 2009. Effect of Polyethylene on Life of Flexible Pavements. Construction and Building Materials. 23: 1456-1464.

Y. Yildirim. 2007. Polymer Modified Asphalt Binders. Construction and Building Materials. 21: 66-72.

G. Polacco, J. Stastna, D. Biondi, and L. Zanzotto. 2006. Relation between Polymer Architecture and Nonlinear Viscoelastic Behavior of Modified Asphalts. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science. 11: 230-245.

I. Gawel and K. Baginska. 2004. Effect of Chemical Nature on the Susceptibility of Asphalt to Aging. Petroleum Science and Technology. 22: 1261-1271.

D. Lesueur. 2009. The Colloidal Structure of Bitumen: Consequences on the Rheology and on the Mechanisms of Bitumen Modification. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science. 145: 42-82.

J. C. Petersen. 2009. A Review of the Fundamentals of Asphalt Oxidation: Chemical, Physicochemical, Physical Property, and Durability Relationships. Transportation Research Board. 140: 1-78.

X. Lu and U. Isacsson. 2000. Artificial Aging of Polymer Modified Bitumens. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 76: 1811-1824.

D. Swiertz. 2010. Asphalt Aging Characteristics, Rheological Implications and Laboratory Techniques. University of Wisconsin-Madison.

W. Fernández, H. Rondón, and F. Reyes. 2012. A Review of Asphalt and Asphalt Mixture Aging. Ingeniería e Investigación. 33: 5-12.

T. W. Kennedy, G. A. Huber, E. T. Harrigan, R. J. Cominsky, C. S. Hughes, H. Von Quintus. 1994. Superior Performing Asphalt Pavements (Superpave): The Product of the SHRP Asphalt Research Program. Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council. Report No. SHRP-A-410.

S. A. Hesp, S. Iliuta, and J. W. Shirokoff. 2003. Reversible Aging in Asphalt Binders. Energy & Fuels. 21: 1112-1121.

J. Read and D. Whiteoak. 2003. The Shell Bitumen Handbook. Thomas Telford Publishers, Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) United Kingdom.

N. Dehouche, M. Kaci, and K. A. Mokhtar. 2012. Influence of Thermo-oxidative Aging on Chemical Composition and Physical Properties of Polymer Modified Bitumens. Construction and Building Materials. 26: 350-356.

J. Petersen, R. Robertson, J. Branthaver, P. Harnsberger, J. Duvall, S. Kim. 1994. Binder Characterization and Evaluation: Volume 1. Rep. No. SHRP-A-367, Strategic Highway Research Program. National Research Council, Washington, DC.

C. Vallés, R. J. Young, D. J. Lomax, and I. A. Kinloch. 2014. The rheological behaviour of concentrated dispersions of graphene oxide. Journal of Materials Science. 49: 6311-6320.

A. Pérez-Lepe, F. Martínez-Boza, and C. Gallegos. 2005. Influence of Polymer Concentration on the Microstructure and Rheological Properties of High-density Polyethylene (HDPE)-modified Bitumen. Energy & Fuels. 19: 1148-1152.

N. I. M. Yusoff, D. Mounier, G. Marc-Stéphane, M. R. Hainin, G. D. Airey, and H. Di Benedetto. 2013. Modelling the Rheological Properties of Bituminous Binders Using the 2s2p1d Model. Construction and Building Materials. 38: 395-406.

X. Lu and U. Isacsson. 1997. Characterization of Styrene-Butdiene-styrene Polymer Modified Bitumens-comparison of Conventional Methods and Dynamic Chemical Analyses. Journal of Testing and Evaluation. 25: 383-390.

G. D. Airey. 2002. Use of Black Diagrams to Identify Inconsistencies in Rheological Data. Road Materials and Pavement Design. 3: 403-424.

F. Xiao, S. Amirkhanian, H. Wang, and P. Hao. 2014. Rheological Property Investigations for Polymer and Polyphosphoric Acid Modified Asphalt Binders at High Temperatures. Construction and Building Materials. 64: 316-323.

M. S. Samsudin, A. K. Arshad, J. Ahmad, and K. A. Masri. 2016. Microstructure of Nanosilica Modified Binder by Atomic Force Microscopy. Jurnal Teknologi. 78: 33-44.

T. McNally. 2011. Introduction to Polymer Modified Bitumen. Polymer Modified Bitumen Properties and Characterisation. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge.1-15.

A. H. Ali, N. S. Mashaan, and M. R. Karim. 2013. Investigations of Physical and Rheological Properties of Aged Rubberised Bitumen. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 13: 1-7.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2012 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.
Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.