Penilaian Kitar Hayat Suatu Pengenalan

Saidah Md Said, Amir Hamzah Sharaai, Sitty Nur Syafa Bakri

Abstract



Penilaian Kitar Hayat (LCA) merupakan alat untuk menilai dan membanding impak alam sekitar oleh aktiviti manusia terhadap proses atau produk daripada awal hingga akhir hayatnya. Penggunaan sumber dan pembebasannya kepada alam sekitar berlaku pada pelbagai peringkat kitar hayat sesebuah produk daripada pengekstrakan bahan mentah, pemerolehan tenaga, penghasilan dan pembuatan, penggunaan, kitar semula dan pelupusan. Kesemuanya berpotensi menyumbang kepada perubahan iklim, penipisan lapisan ozon, pengasidan, eutrofikasi, bebanan ketoksikan terhadap kesihatan manusia dan ekosistem, pengurangan sumber, guna tanah dan sebagainya. Kertas kerja ini bertujuan memperkenalkan kerangka dan prosedur dalam melakukan kajian LCA, aplikasi, kelebihan dan pembatasan LCA untuk diaplikasikan ke dalam pengurusan alam sekitar dan pencegahan pencemaran.

Kata kunci: Penilaian Kitar Hayat (LCA); pengurusan alam sekitar; pencegahan pencemaran

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to measure and compare the environmental impacts by human activities of a process or product from cradle to grave. Resources consumption and emission to environment occur at many stages in a product’s life cycle from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, recycling until the disposal. These potentially contribute to climate change, ozone depletion, acidification, euthrophication, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources, land use, and others. This paper introduces the LCA framework and procedure, applications, advantage and limitation of LCA as well as its application in environmental management and pollution prevention scenarios.

Key words: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); environmental management; pollution prevention

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11113/jt.v53.106

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