Nurfatihah Che Abd Rashid, Nor Hafizah Ngajikin, Khairunnisa Mohd Yusof, Suhaila Isaak, Asrul Izam Azmi, Rashidah Arsat


Loss analysis due to the insertion of optical fiber in short wavelength spectrophotometer system is experimentally conducted to improve resolution and flexibility of the system design. In this paper, type, length and bending diameter of the optical fiber are analyzed as a preliminary work towards the development of a low-loss spectrophotometer system. In order to analyze a suitable type of fiber to be adopted in this system, a 20 mm length and 0 mm bending diameter of a single-mode fiber (SMF), multi-mode fiber (MMF) and Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) fiber are tested. The length and bending diameter of the suitable fiber is then varied from 20 mm to 60 mm and 6 mm to 22 mm respectively. In this paper, light emitting diode (LED) centered at 525 nm wavelength with 35 nm full width half maximum (FWHM) is used as the spectrophotometer light source while silicon photodiode is used as the detector. In this work, photodetector output voltage is recorded to analyze the loss contributed by these three parameters. At this particular wavelength, PMMA is found to be a suitable fiber to be adopted due to its minimal loss performance. Besides the fiber type, having a minimal fiber length with maximal fiber bending diameter can reduce loss due to the insertion of optical fiber in spectrophotometer system, hence improving the spectrophotometer resolution performance.


Spectrophotometer, flexibility, optical fiber, low loss

Full Text:



Fanjul-Bolado, P., et al. 2015. Uric Acid Determination by Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Based Screen-Printed Electrodes. Electroanalysis. 27(5): 1276-1281.

Hamzah, H. H., et al. 2013. Spectrophotometric Determination of Uric Acid in Urine Based-Enzymatic Method Uricase with 4-Aminodiphenylamine Diazonium Sulfate (Variamine Blue RT Salt). Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques. S7: 1.

Vandewalle, K., et al. 2005. Thermal Emission and Curing Efficiency of LED and Halogen Curing Lights. Oper Dent. 30(2): 257-264.

Albert, D. R., et al. 2012. A Low-cost Quantitative Absorption Spectrophotometer. Journal of Chemical Education. 89(11): 1432-1435.

Yeh, T. S. and S. S. Tseng. 2006. A Low Cost LED based Spectrometer. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society. 53(5): 1067-10723.

Kim, J.-S., et al. 2015. Simple LED Spectrophotometer for Analysis of Color Information. Biomed Mater Eng. 26(s1): S1773-S1780.

Grasse, E. K., et al. 2016. Teaching UV–Vis Spectroscopy with a 3D-Printable Smartphone Spectrophotometer. Journal of Chemical Education. 93(1): 146-1516.

Gombar, M., et al. 2012. Construction of a Photochemical Reactor Combining a CCD Spectrophotometer and a LED Radiation Source. Photochem Photobiol Sc. 11(10): 1592-1595.

Gupta, S., et al. 2015. Smartphone Spectrophotometer for Point-of-care Diagnostics in Low-resource Settings. Humanitarian Technology Conference (R10-HTC) IEEE Region 10, IEEE.

Wego, A. 2013. Accuracy Simulation of an LED based Spectrophotometer. Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. 124(7): 644-649.

J. H. Hardesty, B. Attili. 2010. Spectrophotometry and the Beer-Lambert Law: An Important Analytical Technique in Chemistry. 2.

Bagad, V. S. 2009. Optical Fiber Communications. Technical Publications.

Saito, K. and A. J. Ikushima. 1999. Development of a Wide-temperature Range VUV and UV Spectrophotometer and its Applications to Silica Glass. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 259(1-3): 81-86.

Nagai, H., et al. 2014. Optimization of Excitation-emission Bands for Estimating Viable Bacteria on Meat Surfaces with Fluorescence Spectroscopy. 2014 International Conference Of Advanced Informatics: Concept, Theory and Application (ICAICTA). Indonesia. 20-21 August 2014. 165-170.

Watson, V. 2011. Microbending & Macrobending Power Losses in Optical Fibres. Jay, J. A. 2010. An Overview Of Macrobending and Microbending Of Optical Fibers. White Paper of Corning. 1-21.

Lima, C. J. d., et al. 2009. A Novel Opto-mechanical System Coupled to a Spectrophotometer for Measuring Coatings on Small Size Substrates and Optical Fiber Filters. Instrumentation Science & Technology. 37(5): 544-556.

Belz, M., et al. 2007. UV LED Fiber Optic Detection System for DNA and Protein. Biomedical Optics (BiOS) 2007 International Society for Optics and Photonics. 64330H-64330H-8.

Ferrer, L., et al. 2004. A Multisyringe Flow Injection Method for the Automated Determination of Sulfide in Waters Using a Miniaturised Optical Fiber Spectrophotometer. Talanta. 64(5): 1119-1126.

Shokoufi, N., et al. 2007. Fiber Optic-linear Array Detection Spectrophotometry in Combination with Dispersive Liquid–liquid Microextraction for Simultaneous Preconcentration and Determination of Palladium and Cobalt. Analytica Chimica Acta. 597(2): 349-356.

Schubert, E. F. 2006. Light-Emitting Diodes. Second Edition. 22: 367-374.

Haile-Mariam, A.1994. Principles and Characteristics of Optical Fibers. In T.W.Tibbitts (ed.). International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop, NASA-CP-95-3309. 319-324.

Hecht, J. 2015. Understanding Fiber Optics. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Bagad, V. S. 2009. Optical Fiber Communications. Technical Publications.

Crisp, J. and B.J Elhott. 2005. Introduction to Fiber Optics 3rd Edn. Elsevier. New York. ISBN-13:9780750667562.

Beadie, G., et al. 2015. Refractive Index Measurements of Poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) from 0.4–1.6 μm. Applied Optics. 54(31): F139-F143.

Chandler-Horowitz, D. and P. M. Amirtharaj. 2005. High-accuracy, Midinfrared (450 cm-1<= omega<= 4000 cm-1) Refractive Index Values of Silicon. Journal of Applied Physics. 97(12): 3526.

Abrate, S., et al. 2013. Step-index PMMA Fibers and Their Applications. Current Developments in Optical Fiber Technology. 177-202.

Redding, B. and Cao, H. 2012. Using a Multimode Fiber as a High-resolution, Low-loss Spectrometer. Optics Letters. 37(16): 3384-3386.

Rajak, A., et al. 2015. A Simple Spectrometer Using Various LEDs and a Photodiode Sensor for Photocatalytic Performance Evaluation. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 771: 17-20.

Navas, K. A. 2015. Electronics Lab Manual Volume I. Fifth Edition. Prentice Hall India Pvt., Limited.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11113/jt.v79.10612


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2012 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.
Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.