Nur Syakirah Talha, Sarina Sulaiman, Azlin Suhaida Azmi


In-situ transesterification method is a simplified method for biodiesel production where the oil was simultaneously extracted and transesterified into alkyl ester in-situ in one single process. This process combines the steps of lipid (oil) extraction and transesterification. The alcohol used was methanol as it is widely available and economically feasible. In this study, in situ transesterification was conducted using solid coconut waste and a novel heterogeneous catalyst synthesized from eggshells and solid coconut waste by calcination. Reaction temperature, catalyst loading, and methanol to solid ratio were varied from 70 to 120˚C, 0.5 to 10.5 wt %, and 8:1 to 12:1 respectively. Meanwhile, reaction time was fixed to 3 hrs. Heterogeneous catalyst can help to reduce the steps in separation and purification of the product. Moreover, utilizing waste in the production can lower the production cost as well as help to save and clean the environment. The highest biodiesel yield was observed at the condition of 95˚C, 0.5 wt % catalyst, and 10:1 methanol to solid ratio.


Biodiesel, in-situ transesterification, heterogeneous catalyst, eggshells, solid coconut waste

Full Text:



Atabani A. E., A. S. Silitonga, I. Anjum, T. M. I. Mahlia, H. H. Masjuki, and S. Mekhilef. 2012. A Comprehensive Review On Biodiesel As An Alternative Energy Resource and Its Characteristics. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 16(4): 2070-2093.

US Environmental Protection Agency and American Standards. (n.d). Biodiesel Definition and Benefits. Tri-State Biodiesel. 1: 2-3.

MaF., L. Clements, and M. Hanna. 1998. Biodiesel Fuel From Animal Fat. Ancillary Studies On Transesterification of Beef Tallow. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 37: 3768-3771.

Leung, D. Y. C., X. Wu, and M. K. H. Leung. 2010. A Review On Biodiesel Production Using Catalyzed Transesterification. Appl. Energy. 87(4): 1083-1095.

Sharma, Y. C. and B. Singh, 2008. Development of Biodiesel From Karanja, A Tree Found In Rural India. Fuel. 67: 1740-1742.

Borges, M. E. and L. Díaz. 2012. Recent Developments On Heterogeneous Catalysts for Biodiesel Production by Oil Esterification and Transesterification Reactions: A Review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 16(5): 2839-2849.

Abo El-Enin S. a., N. K. Attia, N. N. El-Ibiari, G. I. El-Diwani, and K. M. El-Khatib. 2013. In-Situ Transesterification of Rapeseed and Cost Indicators For Biodiesel Production. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 18(2013): 471-477.

Farooq, M., A. Ramli, and D. Subbarao. 2013. Biodiesel Production From Waste Cooking Oil Using Bifunctional Heterogeneous Solid Catalysts. J. Clean. Prod. 59(2013): 131-140.

Sanjay, B. 2013. Heterogeneous Catalyst Derived From Natural Resources For Biodiesel Production: A Review. Res. J. Chem. Sci. 3(6): 95-101.

Buasri A., P. Worawanitchaphong, S. Trongyong, and V. Loryuenyong. 2014. Utilization of Scallop Waste Shell For Biodiesel Production From Palm Oil–Optimization Using Taguchi Method. APCBEE Procedia. 8(2014): 216-221.

Buasri, A., N. Chaiyut, V. Loryuenyong, C. Wongweang, and S. Khamsrisuk. 2013. Application of Eggshell Wastes As A Heterogeneous Catalyst For Biodiesel Production. Sustain. Energy. 1(2): 7-13.

Buasri, A., N. Chaiyut, V. Loryuenyong, C. Wongweang, and S. Khamsrisuk. 2013. Application of Eggshell Wastes as a Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production. Sustain. Energy. 1(2): 7-13.

Sulaiman S., a. R. Abdul Aziz, and M. K. Aroua. 2013. Reactive Extraction of Solid Coconut Waste to Produce Biodiesel. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 44(2): 233-238.

Tariq M., S. Ali, F. Ahmad, M. Ahmad, M. Zafar, N. Khalid, and M. A. Khan. 2011. Identification, FT-IR, NMR (1H And 13C) And GC/MS Studies of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters In Biodiesel from Rocket Seed Oil. Fuel Process. Technol. 92(3): 336-341.

Helwani Z., M. R. Othman, N. Aziz, W. J. N. Fernando, and J. Kim, 2009. Technologies For Production of Biodiesel Focusing On Green Catalytic Techniques: A Review. Fuel Process. Technol. 90(12): 1502-1514.

Yu, X., Z. Wen, H. Li, S.-T. Tu, and J. Yan. 2011. Transesterification of Pistacia Chinensis Oil For Biodiesel Catalyzed By CaO–CeO2 Mixed Oxides. Fuel. 90(5): 1868-1874.

Birla, A., B. Singh, S. N. Upadhyay, and Y. C. Sharma. 2012. Kinetics Studies of Synthesis of Biodiesel From Waste Frying Oil Using a Heterogeneous Catalyst Derived from Snail Shell. Bioresour. Technol. 106(2012): 95-100.

Obadiah A., G. A. Swaroopa, S. V. Kumar, K. R. Jeganathan, and A. Ramasubbu. 2012. Biodiesel Production From Palm Oil Using Calcined Waste Animal Bone As Catalyst. Bioresour. Technol. 116(2012): 512-516.

Buasri, A., B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy, and N. Chaiyut, 2012. Biodiesel Production From Waste Cooking Palm Oil Using Calcium Oxide Supported on Activated Carbon as Catalyst in a Fixed Bed Reactor. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 29(12): 1708-1712.

Buasri, A., N. Chaiyut, V. Loryuenyong, C. Rodklum, T. Chaikwan, N. Kumphan, K. Jadee, P. Klinklom, and W. Wittayarounayut. 2012. Transesterification of Waste Frying Oil For Synthesizing Biodiesel By KOH Supported On Coconut Shell Activated Carbon In Packed Bed Reactor. ScienceAsia. 38(3): 283-288.

Lim B. P., G. P. Maniam, and S. A. Hamid, 2009. Biodiesel from Adsorbed Waste Oil on Spent Bleaching Clay Using CaO as a Heterogeneous Catalyst. Eur. J. Sci. Res. 33(2): 347-357.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11113/jt.v79.11329


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2012 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.
Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.