Chong Chee Soon, Rozaimi Ghazali, Hazriq Izzuan Jaafar, Sharifah Yuslinda Syed Hussien


The prominent performance of electro-hydraulic servo (EHS) system has received a positive admission in the industrial field. EHS system is well known to be disclosed to the parameter variations, disturbances and uncertainties which are affects by the changes in the operating conditions such as friction, internal and external leakage. The complexity and nonlinear characteristic of the EHS system leads to a great challenge in controller development and system modelling. The performance of the utilized controller can be improved in order to achieve its best capability. In this paper, the basic knowledge in optimization of the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller through Gradient Descent (GD) method was discussed. The PID parameters obtained through Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) tuning method has been optimized using the GD method via MATLAB/Simulink software. The findings illustrate significant improvement in the positioning tracking performance by applying the developed optimization technique. Therefore, the issues that were degraded the EHS system performance have been reduced.


Electro-hydraulic servo system; Gradient Descent optimization technique; PID controller; position tracking

Full Text:



Ghazali, R., Ngadengon, R., Sam, Y. M., Rahmat, M. F., and Hamzah, N. 2011. “Chaotic trajectory tracking of an electro-hydraulic actuator system using discrete sliding mode control,” in 2011 IEEE International Conference on Control System, Computing and Engineering. 500–506.

Ghazali, R., Sam, Y. M., Rahmat, M. F., Hanafi, D., Ngadengon, R., and Zulfatman. 2011. “Point-to-point trajectory tracking with discrete sliding mode control of an electro-hydraulic actuator system,” in Proceedings - 2011 IEEE Student Conference on Research and Development, SCOReD 2011. 148–153.

Merritt, H. E. 1967. Hydraulic Control Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated 1920.

Ghazali, R., Soon, C. C., Jaafar, H. I., Sam, Y. M., and Rahmat, M. F. 2014. “System Identification of Electro-hydraulic Actuator System with Pressure and Load Effects,” in IEEE International Conference on Control System, Computing and Engineering. 256–260.

Ghazali, R., Sam, Y. M., Rahmat, M. F., Zulfatman, and Hashim, a. W. I. M. 2011. “Perfect tracking control with discrete-time lqr for a non-minimum phase electro-hydraulic actuator system,” Int. J. Smart Sens. Intell. Syst. 4(3): 424–439,

Ghazali, R., Sam, Y. M., Rahmat, M. F., Hashim, A. W. I., and Zulfatman, Z. 2010. “Position tracking control of an electro-hydraulic servo system using sliding mode control.” Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci. 4(10): 4749–4759.

Medhat, A., and Youssef, M. 2013. “Optimized PID tracking controller for piezoelectric hysteretic actuator model.” World J. Model. Simul. 9(3): 223–234.

Meshram, P. M. and Kanojiya, R. G. 2012 “Tuning of PID Controller using Ziegler-Nichols Method for Speed Control of DC Motor,” in 2013 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications (CCA). 117–122.

Tajjudin, M., Ishak, N., Ismail, H., Rahiman, M. H. F., and Adnan, R. 2011. “Optimized PID control using Nelder-Mead method for electro-hydraulic actuator systems,” in Proceedings - 2011 IEEE Control and System Graduate Research Colloquium, ICSGRC 2011. 90–93.

Piltan, F., Siamak, S., Bairami, M. A., and Nazari, I. 2012. “Gradient descent optimal chattering free sliding mode fuzzy control design: Lyapunov approach,” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Technol. 43: 73–90

Yin, J., and Chen, D. 2013. “An intelligent train operation algorithm via gradient descent method and driver’s experience,” in IEEE ICIRT 2013 - Proceedings: IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Rail Transportation, 54–59.

Ghazali, R., Sam, Y. M., Rahmat, M. F., Zulfatman, and Hashim, A. W. I. M. 2012. “Simulation and experimental studies on perfect tracking optimal control of an electrohydraulic actuator system.” J. Control Sci. Eng. 2012: 4.

Kalyoncu, M. and Haydim, M. 2009. “Mathematical modelling and fuzzy logic based position control of an electrohydraulic servosystem with internal leakage.” Mechatronics. 19(6): 847–858

Ziegler, J. G., and Nichols, N. B. 1942. “Optimum Sttings for Automatic Controllers,” Transacction of the A.S.M.E. 64(11): 759–768

Li, Y., Ang, K. H., and Chong, G. C. Y. 2006. “PID control system analysis and design.” IEEE Control Syst. 6(1): 32 – 41

Rozali, S. M., Rahmat, M. F., Abdul Wahab, N., Ghazali, R., and Zulfatman. 2010. “PID controller design for an industrial hydraulic actuator with servo system,” in Proceeding, 2010 IEEE Student Conference on Research and Development - Engineering: Innovation and Beyond, SCOReD 2010. 218–223.

Piltan, F., Boroomand, B., Jahed, A., and Rezaie, H. 2012. “Performance-Based Adaptive Gradient Descent Optimal Coefficient Fuzzy Sliding Mode Methodology,” Int. J. Intell. Syst. Appl. 4(11): 40–52

Yuan, Y. 2006. “A new stepsize for the steepest descent method,” J. Comput. Math. 24(2): 149–156

El Emary, I. M. M., Emar, W., and Aqel, M. J. 2009. “The adaptive fuzzy designed PID controller using wavelet network,” Comput. Sci. Inf. Syst. 6(2): 141–163

Von Lieres, E.,and Andersson, J. 2010. “A fast and accurate solver for the general rate model of column liquid chromatography.” Comput. Chem. Eng. 34(8): 1180–1191



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2012 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.
Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.