ADVANCEMENT IN THE PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM BIOMASS USING MICROWAVE HEATING

Adekunle Moshood Abioye, Farid Nasir Ani

Abstract


An overview of recent advancement in the production of activated carbon (AC) from biomass using microwave heating is presented. The use of microwave heating method for the thermal conversion of biomass to useful products has been on the increase in the last decade because it offers fast and uniform heating, and a higher level of automation. The effects of process parameters (microwave power and radiation time, agent flow rate in physical activation and impregnation ratio in chemical activation) on the properties and adsorption capacity of the AC are reviewed. From the results reported in the literature, it can be seen that the influence of the preparation parameters on the adsorption capacity of the prepared AC followed the same pattern. In the physical activation process, microwave power and radiation time have more pronounce effects on the properties of the AC than the activation agent flow rate. Furthermore, the properties of the AC were found to be at their best when the process parameters are at the optimum values wether individually or collectively, and further increase in the process value beyond optimum value resulted in decrease in their adsorption capacity.


Keywords


Biomass, microwave heating, activated carbon, pore structure

Full Text:

PDF

References


Li, W., Peng, J., Zhang, L., Yang, K., Xia, H., Zhang, S., and Guo, S. H. 2009. Preparation Of Activated Carbon From Coconut Shell Chars In Pilot-Scale Microwave Heating Equipment At 60 kW. Waste Manag. 29(2): 756-60.

Shepherd, A. 2001. Activated Carbon Adsorption for Treatment of VOC Emissions. 13th Annual EnviroExpo. 1-4.

Vitolo, S. and Seggiani, M. 2002. Mercury Removal From Geothermal Exhaust Gas By Sulfur-Impregnated And Virgin Activated Carbons. Geothermics. 31(4): 431-442.

Pintar, A. 2003. Catalytic Processes For The Purification Of Drinking Water And Industrial Effluents. Catalysis Today. 77(4): 451-465.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2011. Preparation Of Oil Palm (Elaeis) Empty Fruit Bunch Activated Carbon By Microwave-Assisted KOH Activation For The Adsorption Of Methylene Blue. Desalination. 275(1-3): 302-305.

Hejazifar, M., Azizian, S., Sarikhani, H., Li, Q., and Zhao, D. 2011. Microwave Assisted Preparation Of Efficient Activated Carbon From Grapevine Rhytidome For The Removal Of Methyl Violet From Aqueous Solution. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 92(1): 258-266.

Mohammed, J., Nasri, N. S., Ahmad Zaini, M. A., Hamza, U. D., and Ani, F. N. 2015. Adsorption Of Benzene And Toluene Onto KOH Activated Coconut Shell Based Carbon Treated With NH3. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 102: 245-255.

Mohammed, J., Nasri, N. S., A. Zaini, M. A., Hamza, U. D., Zain, H. M., and Ani, F. N. 2015. Optimization Of Microwave Irradiated - Coconut Shell Activated Carbon Using Response Surface Methodology For Adsorption Of Benzene And Toluene. Desalination and Water Treatment. 1-17.

Nasri, N. S., Mohammed, J., Ahmad Zaini, M. A., Hamza, U. D., Mohd. Zain, H., and Ani, F. N. 2014. Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Benzene and Toluene Adsorption onto Microwave Irradiated-Coconut Shell Activated Carbon. Advanced Materials Research. 1043: 219-223.

Arrebola, J. C., Caballero, A., Hernán, L., Morales, J., Olivares-Marín, M., and Gómez-Serrano, V. 2010. Improving the Performance of Biomass-Derived Carbons in Li-Ion Batteries by Controlling the Lithium Insertion Process. Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 157(7): A791-A797.

Si, W.-J., Wu, X.-Z., Xing, W., Zhou, J., and Zhuo, S.-P. 2011. Bagasse-based Nanoporous Carbon for Supercapacitor Application. Journal of Inorganic Materials. 26(1): 107-112.

Wu, X., Xing, W., Florek, J., Zhou, J., Wang, G., Zhuo, S., Xue, Q., Yan, Z., and Kleitz, F. 2014. On The Origin Of The High Capacitance Of Carbon Derived From Seaweed With An Apparently Low Surface Area. J. Mater. Chem. A. 2(44): 18998-19004.

Kalyani, P., Anitha, A., and Darchen, A. 2015. Obtaining Activated Carbon from Papaya Seeds for Energy Storage Devices. International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology. 4(1): 110-122.

Li, W., Zhang, L.-b., Peng, J.-h., Li, N., and Zhu, X.-y. 2008. Preparation Of High Surface Area Activated Carbons From Tobacco Stems With K2CO3 Activation Using Microwave Radiation. Industrial Crops and Products. 27(3): 341-347.

Hesas, R. H., Wan Daud, W. M. A., Sahu, J. N., and Arami-Niya, A. 2013. The Effects Of A Microwave Heating Method On The Production Of Activated Carbon From Agricultural Waste: A Review. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 100: 1-11.

Yang, K., Peng, J., Srinivasakannan, C., Zhang, L., Xia, H., and Duan, X. 2010. Preparation Of High Surface Area Activated Carbon From Coconut Shells Using Microwave Heating. Bioresour Technol. 101(15): 6163-9.

Oghbaei, M. and Mirzaee, O. 2010. Microwave Versus Conventional Sintering: A Review Of Fundamentals, Advantages And Applications. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 494(1-2): 175-189.

Xie, Z., Yang, J., Huang, X., and Huang, Y. 1999. Microwave Processing And Properties Of Ceramics With Different Dielectric Loss. Journal of the European Ceramic Society. 19(3): 381-387.

Metaxas, A. C. 1991. Microwave Heating. Power Engineering Journal. 5(5): 237-247.

Tang, S.-Y., Xia, Z.-N., Fu, Y.-J., and Gou, Q. 2008. Advances and Applications of Microwave Spectroscopy. Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 36(8): 1145-1151.

Eskicioglu, C., Terzian, N., Kennedy, K. J., Droste, R. L., and Hamoda, M. 2007. Athermal Microwave Effects For Enhancing Digestibility Of Waste Activated Sludge. Water Research. 41(11): 2457-2466.

Lam, S. S. and Chase, H. A. 2012. A Review on Waste to Energy Processes Using Microwave Pyrolysis. Energies. 5(12): 4209-4232.

Bergese, P., Colombo, I., Gervasoni, D., and Depero, L. E. 2003. Microwave Generated Nanocomposites For Making Insoluble Drugs Soluble. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 23(6-8): 791-795.

Wu, T.-N. 2008. Environmental Perspectives of Microwave Applications as Remedial Alternatives: Review. Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management. 12(2): 102-115.

Zong, L., Zhou, S., Sgriccia, N., Hawley, M. C., and Kempel, L. C. 2003. A Review of Microwave-Assisted Polymer Chemistry (MAPC). Journal of Microwave Power & Electromagnetic Energy. 38(1): 49-74.

Jones, D. A., Lelyveld, T. P., Mavrofidis, S. D., Kingman, S. W., and Miles, N. J. 2002. Microwave Heating Applications In Environmental Engineering—A Review. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 34(2): 75-90.

Lu, A., Zhang, S., Shan, X.-q., Wang, S., and Wang, Z. 2003. Application Of Microwave Extraction For The Evaluation Of Bioavailability Of Rare Earth Elements In Soils. Chemosphere. 53(9): 1067-1075.

Yuen, F. K. and Hameed, B. H. 2009. Recent Developments In The Preparation And Regeneration Of Activated Carbons By Microwaves. Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 149(1-2): 19-27.

Menéndez, J. A., Arenillas, A., Fidalgo, B., Fernández, Y., Zubizarreta, L., Calvo, E. G., and Bermúdez, J. M. 2010. Microwave Heating Processes Involving Carbon Materials. Fuel Processing Technology. 91(1): 1-8.

Haque, K. E. 1999. Microwave energy for mineral treatment processes—a brief review.International Journal of Mineral Processing, 57(1): 1-24.

Salema, A. A. and Ani, F. N. 2011. Microwave Induced Pyrolysis Of Oil Palm Biomass. Bioresour Technol. 102(3): 3388-95.

Deng, H., Li, G., Yang, H., Tang, J., and Tang, J. 2010. Preparation Of Activated Carbons From Cotton Stalk By Microwave Assisted KOH and K2CO3 Activation. Chemical Engineering Journal. 163(3): 373-381.

Abas, F. Z. and Ani, F. N. 2014. Comparing Characteristics of Oil Palm Biochar Using Conventional and Microwave Heating. Jurnal Teknologi. 68(3): 33-37.

Zaharah Abas, F. and Ani, F. N. 2016. Characteristic of Oil Palm Activated Carbon Produced from Microwave and Conventional Heating. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 819: 606-611.

Abioye, A. M. and Ani, F. N. 2015. Recent Development In The Production Of Activated Carbon Electrodes From Agricultural Waste Biomass For Supercapacitors: A Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 52: 1282-1293.

Guo, J. and Lua, A. C. 2000. Preparation Of Activated Carbons From Oil-Palm-Stone Chars By Microwave-Induced Carbon Dioxide Activation. Carbon. 38: 1985-1993.

Aworn, A., Thiravetyan, P., and Nakbanpote, W. 2008. Preparation And Characteristics Of Agricultural Waste Activated Carbon By Physical Activation Having Micro- And Mesopores. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 82(2): 279-285.

Abioye, A. M. and Ani, F. N. 2014. The Characteristics of Oil Palm Shell Biochar and Activated Carbon Produced via Microwave Heating. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 695: 12-15.

Xin-hui, D., Srinivasakannan, C., Jin-hui, P., Li-bo, Z., and Zheng-yong, Z. 2011. Comparison Of Activated Carbon Prepared From Jatropha Hull By Conventional Heating And Microwave Heating. Biomass and Bioenergy. 35(9): 3920-3926.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2011. Microwave-assisted Preparation Of Oil Palm Fiber Activated Carbon For Methylene Blue Adsorption. Chemical Engineering Journal. 166(2): 792-795.

Yagmur, E., Ozmak, M., and Aktas, Z. 2008. A Novel Method For Production Of Activated Carbon From Waste Tea By Chemical Activation With Microwave Energy. Fuel. 87(15-16): 3278-3285.

Waheed ul Hasan, S. and Ani, F. N. 2014. Review of Limiting Issues in Industrialization and Scale-up of Microwave-Assisted Activated Carbon Production. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 53(31): 12185-12191.

Hoseinzadeh Hesas, R., Arami-Niya, A., Wan Daud, W. M. A., and Sahu, J. N. 2013. Comparison Of Oil Palm Shell-Based Activated Carbons Produced By Microwave And Conventional Heating Methods Using Zinc Chloride Activation. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 104: 176-184.

Biniak, S., Szymanski, G., Siedlewski, J., and Swiatkowski, A. 1997. The Characterization of Activated Carbons with Oxygen and Nitrogen Surface Groups. Carbon. 35(12): 1799-1810.

Rafatullah, M., Ahmad, T., Ghazali, A., Sulaiman, O., Danish, M., and Hashim, R. 2013. Oil Palm Biomass as a Precursor of Activated Carbons: A Review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 43(11): 1117-1161.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2012. Coconut Husk Derived Activated Carbon Via Microwave Induced Activation: Effects Of Activation Agents, Preparation Parameters And Adsorption Performance. Chemical Engineering Journal. 184: 57-65.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2012. Porous Structure And Adsorptive Properties Of Pineapple Peel Based Activated Carbons Prepared Via Microwave Assisted KOH and K2CO3 Activation. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials. 148(1): 191-195.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2011. Utilization Of Rice Husks As A Feedstock For Preparation Of Activated Carbon By Microwave Induced KOH and K2CO3 Activation. Bioresour Technol. 102(20): 9814-7.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2012. Textural Porosity, Surface Chemistry And Adsorptive Properties Of Durian Shell Derived Activated Carbon Prepared By Microwave Assisted NaOH Activation. Chemical Engineering Journal. 187: 53-62.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2012. Preparation, Characterization And Evaluation Of Adsorptive Properties Of Orange Peel Based Activated Carbon Via Microwave Induced K2CO3 Activation. Bioresour Technol. 104: 679-86.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2011. Preparation And Characterization Of Activated Carbon From Pistachio Nut Shells Via Microwave-Induced Chemical Activation. Biomass and Bioenergy. 35(7): 3257-3261.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2012. Adsorption Characteristics Of Industrial Solid Waste Derived Activated Carbon Prepared By Microwave Heating For Methylene Blue. Fuel Processing Technology. 99: 103-109.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2012. Microwave-Assisted Preparation And Adsorption Performance Of Activated Carbon From Biodiesel Industry Solid Reside: Influence Of Operational Parameters. Bioresour Technol. 103(1): 398-404.

Hoseinzadeh Hesas, R., Arami-Niya, A., Wan Daud, W. M. A., and Sahu, J. N. 2013. Preparation Of Granular Activated Carbon From Oil Palm Shell By Microwave-Induced Chemical Activation: Optimisation Using Surface Response Methodology. Chemical Engineering Research and Design. 91(12): 2447-2456.

Liu, Q.-S., Zheng, T., Wang, P., and Guo, L. 2010. Preparation and Characterization Of Activated Carbon From Bamboo By Microwave-Induced Phosphoric Acid Activation. Industrial Crops and Products. 31(2): 233-238.

Deng, H., Zhang, G., Xu, X., Tao, G., and Dai, J. 2010. Optimization of Preparation Of Activated Carbon From Cotton Stalk By Microwave Assisted Phosphoric Acid-Chemical Activation. J Hazard Mater. 182(1-3): 217-24.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2012..Chemical Dynamic Adsorption Behavior Of Methylene Blue Onto Oil Palm Shell Granular Activated Carbon Prepared By Microwave Heating. Engineering Journal. 203: 81-87.

Huang, L., Sun, Y., Wang, W., Yue, Q., and Yang, T. 2011. Comparative Study On Characterization Of Activated Carbons Prepared By Microwave And Conventional Heating Methods And Application In Removal Of Oxytetracycline (OTC). Chemical Engineering Journal. 171(3): 1446-1453.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2012. Potential Of Jackfruit Peel As Precursor For Activated Carbon Prepared By Microwave Induced NaOH Activation. Bioresource Technology, 112: 143-150.

Deng, H., Yang, L., Tao, G., and Dai, J. 2009. Preparation and Characterization Of Activated Carbon From Cotton Stalk By Microwave Assisted Chemical Activation--Application In Methylene Blue Adsorption From Aqueous Solution. J Hazard Mater. 166(2-3): 1514-21.

Yacob, A. R., Wahab, N., Suhaimi, N. H., and Mustajab, M. K. A. A. 2013. Microwave Induced Carbon from Waste Palm Kernel Shell Activated by Phosphoric Acid.International Journal of Engineering and Technology. 214-217.

Wang, T., Tan, S., and Liang, C. 2009. Preparation And Characterization Of Activated Carbon From Wood Via Microwave-Induced ZnCl2 Activation. Carbon. 47(7): 1880-1883.

Maldhure, A. V. and Ekhe, J. D. 2011. Preparation And Characterizations Of Microwave Assisted Activated Carbons From Industrial Waste Lignin For Cu(II) Sorption. Chemical Engineering Journal. 168(3): 1103-1111.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2011. Microwave Assisted Preparation Of Activated Carbon From Pomelo Skin For The Removal Of Anionic And Cationic Dyes. Chemical Engineering Journal. 173(2): 385-390.

He, X., Ling, P., Qiu, J., Yu, M., Zhang, X., Yu, C., and Zheng, M. 2013. Efficient Preparation Of Biomass-Based Mesoporous Carbons For Supercapacitors With Both High Energy Density And High Power Density. Journal of Power Sources. 240: 109-113.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2013. Utilization Of Oil Palm Biodiesel Solid Residue As Renewable Sources For Preparation Of Granular Activated Carbon By Microwave Induced KOH Activation. Bioresour Technol. 130: 696-702.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2012. Mesoporous Activated Carbon From Wood Sawdust By K2CO3 Activation Using Microwave Heating. Bioresour Technol. 111: 425-32.

Iqbaldin, M. N. M., Khudzir, I., Azlan, M. I. M., Zaidi, A. G., Surani, B., and Zubri, Z. 2013. Properties of Coconut Shell Activated Carbon. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 25(4): 497-503.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2011. Preparation Of Activated Carbon From Date Stones By Microwave Induced Chemical Activation: Application For Methylene Blue Adsorption. Chemical Engineering Journal. 170(1): 338-341.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2012. Preparation Of Activated Carbon By Microwave Heating Of Langsat (Lansium Domesticum) Empty Fruit Bunch Waste. Bioresour Technol. 116: 522-5.

Foo, K. Y. and Hameed, B. H. 2011. Preparation And Characterization Of Activated Carbon From Sunflower Seed Oil Residue Via Microwave Assisted K2CO3 Activation. Bioresour Technol. 102(20): 9794-9.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11113/jt.v79.7249

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright © 2012 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.
Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.