Mazlin Jumain, Zulkiflee Ibrahim, Zulhilmi Ismail, Mohd Fuad Samsudin, Muhd Zubair Tajol Anuar, Sobri Harun, Md Ridzuan Makhtar, Mohd Suhaimi Abd Rahman


Floods are the most common natural disasters in Malaysia and have damaged structures, infrastructures, crops and even causes fatalities. It may also lead to erosion and sedimentation in rivers and this will result to complex river behaviour.  A hydraulic laboratory experimental study was carried out. Also, flood flow and sediment transport in straight compound channels involving flow resistance, distribution of depth-averaged velocity, stream-wise vorticity patterns, channel bed morphology and bed load transport rate in non-vegetated compound straight mobile bed channels were investigated. The finding showed that the Darcy Weisbach friction factor  f  increased by 40% and 54% for floodplain and main channel, respectively when relative flood flow depth increase from 0.30 to 0.50. The small bed load transport rates of 0.09 g/s and 0.03 g/s for shallow and deep overbank flows, respectively were measured due to effect of very gentle or mild channel bed slope which was fixed at a gradient of 0.1%.



Compound straight channel; flow resistance; velocities distributions; channel bed morphology

Full Text:



Cao, S., X. Liu, and K. Yang. 2007. Flow and Sediment Behaviours in Compound Channels with Vegetated Floodplains. 5th International Symposium on Environmental Hydraulics, Arizona, CD ROM.

Knight, D.W., F. A. Brown, E. Valentine, C. Nalluri, J. Bathurst, I. Benson, R. Myers, J. Lyness, and J. Cassells. 1999. The Response of Straight Mobile Bed Channels To Inbank and Overbank Flows. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Water Maritime and Energy. 136: 211-224.

Myers W. R. C., J. F. Lyness, and J. Cassells. 2001. Influence of Boundary Roughness on Velocity and Discharge in Compound River Channels. Journal of Hydraulic Research. 39(3): 311-319.

Valentine E. M., L. A. Benson, C. Nalluri, and J. C. Bathurst. 2001. Regime Theory and Stability of Straight Channels with Bankfull and Overbank Flow. Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR 39(3): 259-268.

Atabay, S., D. W. Knight, and G. Seckin. 2005. Effects of Overbank Flow on Fluvial Sediment Transport Rates. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Water Management. London, 25-34.

Tang, X. and D. W. Knight. 2006. Sediment Transport in River Models with Overbank Flows. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 132: 77-86.

Karamisheva, R. D., J. F. Lyness, W. R. C. Myers, and J. B. C. Cassells. 2005. Improving Sediment Discharge Prediction for Overbank Flows. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Water Management. 158: 17–24.

Knight, D. W. and F. A. Brown. 2001. Resistance Studies of Overbank Flow in Rivers with Sediment using The Flood Channel Facility. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 39(3): 283-301.

Zhang, G., R. Luo, Y. Cao, R. Shen, and X. C. Zhang. 2010. Impacts of Sediment Load on Manning Coefficient in Supercritical Shallow Flow on Steep Slopes. Hydrological Processes, 24: 3909-3914.

Ali, M., G. Sterk, M. Seeger, M. Boersema, and P. Peters. 2012. Effects of Hydraulic Parameters on Sediment Transport Capacity in Overland Flow over Erodible Beds. Hydrology and Earth System Science. 16: 591-601.

van Rijn, L. C. 1984). Sediment Transport, part I: Bed Load Transport. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE 110(10): 1431-1456.

van Rijn, L. C. 1984b. Sediment Transport, part II: Suspended Load Transport. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE 110(11): 1613-1641.

van Rijn, L. C. 1984c. Sediment Transport, part III: Bed Forms and Alluvial Roughness. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE 110(12): 1733-1754.

Shiono, K. and D. W. Knight. 1991. Turbulent Open-Channel Flows with Variable Depth across the Channel. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 222: 617-646.

Vermaas, D. A., W. S. J. Ujittewaal, and A. J. F. Hoitink. 2011. Lateral Transfer of Stream-wise Momentum Caused By A Roughness Transition Across A Shallow Channel. Water Resources Research. 47 W02530: 1-12.

Tominaga, A. and I. Nezu. 1991. Turbulence Structure in Compound Open Channel Flows. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 117: 21-41.

Nezu, I. and H. Nakagawa. 1993. Turbulence in Open-Channel Flows. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Khademishamami, M., M. H. Omid, and J. Farhoudi. 2014. Flow and Bedload Transport in A Straight Compound Channel with vegetation Roughened Floodplains. River Flow 2014, Taylor & Francis Group, London. 491-498.

Yang, C. T. 1996. Sediment Transport Theory and Practice, (2003 Edition), Florida: Krieger Publishing Company.

Turowski, J. M., D. Rickenmann, and S. J. Dadson. 2010. The Partitioning of the Total Sediment Load of a River into Suspended Load and Bed Load: A Review of Empirical Data. Sedimentology. 57(4): 1126-1146.

Wang, X., Q. Yang, W. Lu, and X. Wang. 2011. Effects of Bed Load Movement on Mean Flow Characteristics in Mobile Gravel Beds. Water Resources Management. 25: 2781-2795.

Goodwin, P. 2004. Anaytical Solutions for Estimating Effective Discharge. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE 130: 729-738.

Gomez, B. 2006. The Potential Rate of Bed Load Transport. PNAS 103: 17170-17173.

Ackers, P. and G. Lacey. 1992. Memorial Lecture. Canal and River Regime in Theory and Practice: 1929-92. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Water Maritime and Energy. 167-178.

Ayyoubzadeh, S. A. 1997. Hydraulic Aspects of Straight Compound Channel Flow and Bed Load Sediment Transport. PhD. Thesis. University of Birmingham.

Tang, X. and D. W. Knight. 2006. Sediment Transport in River Models with Overbank Flows. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 132(1): 77-86.

Bousmar, D., S. Atabay, D. W. Knight, and Y. Zech. 2006. Stage-discharge modelling in Mobile Bed Compound Channel. River Flow. 333-341.

Ismail, Z. 2007. A Study of Overbank Flows in Non-Vegetated and Vegetated Floodplains in Comound Meandering Channels. PhD Thesis. Loughborough University.

Milian, A. C. 2008. Spatial Scales in Alluvial Channels: on 2D Coherent Turbulent Structures and Alternate Bars Formation. PhD Thesis. Universidad Nacional Del Litoral.

Czernuszenko, W., A. Kozial, and P. M. Rowinski. 2007. Measurement of 3D Turbulence Structure in A Compound Channel. Archieves of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics. 54(1): 55-73.

Chow, V. T. 1959. Open Channel Hydraulics. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Lai, S. H., N. Bessaih, L. P. Ling, A. A. Ghani, N. A. Zakaria, and M. Y. Seng. 2008. Discharge Estimation for Equatorial Natural Rivers with Overbank Flow. International Journal of River Basin Management. 6(3): 13-21.

Tang, X. and D. W. Knight. 2009. Analytical Models for Velocity Distributions in Open Channel Flows. Journal of Hydraulic Research. 47(4): 418-428.

Sanjou, M., I. Nezu, S. Suzuki, and K. Itai. 2010. Turbulence Structure of Compound Open-Channel Flows with One-Line Emergent Vegetation. Journal of Hydrodynamics. 22(5): 577-581.

Naot, D. and W. Rodi. 1982. Calculation of Secondary Currents in Open Channel. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 108(8): 948-968.

Rodriguez, J. F. and M. H. Garcia. 2008. Laboratory Measurements of 3-D Flow Patterns and Turbulence in Straight Open Channel with Rough Bed. Journal of Hydraulic Research. 46(4): 454-465.

Guo, J. and P. Y. Julien. 2001. Turbulent Velocity Profiles in Sediment Laden Flows. Journal of Hydraulic Research. 39: 11-23.

Hamidifar, H. and M. H. Omid. 2013. Floodplain Vegetation Contribution to Velocity Distribution in Compound Channels. Journal of Civil Engineering and Urbanism. 3(6): 357-361.

Yang, S.-Q., S. K. Tan, and X. –K. Wang. 2012. Mechanism of Secondary Currents in Open Channel Flows. Journal of Geophysical Research. 117: F04014.

Beschta, R. L. and W. S. Platts. 1986. Morphological Features of Small Stream: Significance and Function. JAWRA Journal of American Water Resources Association. 22(3): 369-379.

Sirdari, Z. Z., A. A. Ghani, and Z. A. Hassan. (2014). Bedload Transport of Small Rivers in Malaysia. International Journal of Sediment Research. 29(4): 481-490.

Spooner, J. (2001). Flow Characteristics in Straight Compound Channels with Vegetation along the Main Channel. PhD Thesis. Loughborough University.

Gime´nez, R. and G. Govers. 2002. Flow Detachment by Concentrated Flow on Smooth and Irregular Beds. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 66(5): 1475–1483

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11113/jt.v78.9675


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2012 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.
Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.