Nur Shazwani Muhammad, Amieroul Iefwat Akashah, Jazuri Abdullah


Extreme rainfall events are the main cause of flooding. This study aimed to examine seven extreme rainfall indices, i.e. extreme rain sum (XRS), very wet day intensity (I95), extremely wet day intensity (I99), very wet day proportion (R95), extremely wet day proportion (R99), very wet days (N95) and extremely wet days (N99) using Mann-Kendall (MK) and the normalized statistic Z tests. The analyses are based on the daily rainfall data gathered from Bayan Lepas, Subang, Senai, Kuantan and Kota Bharu. The east coast states received more rainfall than any other parts in Peninsular Malaysia. Kota Bharu station recorded the highest XRS, i.e. 648 mm. The analyses also indicate that the stations in the eastern part of Peninsular Malaysia experienced higher XRS, I95, I99, R95 and R99 as compared to the stations located in the western and northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Subang and Senai show the highest number of days for wet and very wet (N95) as compared to other stations. Other than that, all stations except for Kota Bharu show increasing trends for most of the extreme rainfall indices. Upward trends indicate that the extreme rainfall events were becoming more severe over the period of 1960 to 2014. 


Extreme rainfall indices, trend of extreme event, Mann-Kendall test, monsoon rainfall

Full Text:



Zhang, Q., Xu, C. Y., Gemmer, M., Chen, Y. D. & Liu, C. 2009. Changing Properties Of Precipitation Concentration In The Pearl River Basin, China. Stochastic Environmental Research And Risk Assessment. 23: 377–385.

Muhammad, N. S., Julien, P. Y., Salas, J. D. 2015. Probability Structure And Return Period Of Multiday Monsoon Rainfall. Journal Of Hydrologic Engineering. ASCE, 21(1): 11.

Eli, A., Shaffie, M., Zin & W.Z.W. 2012. Preliminary Study On Bayesian Extreme Rainfall Analysis: A Case Study Of Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana. 41(11): 1403–1410.

Julien, P. Y., Abdullah, J. And Muhammad, N. S. 2014. Keynote: Analysis Of Extreme Floods In Malaysia. ISFRAM 2014: Proceedings Of The International Symposium On Flood Research And Management. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

Abdullah, J. & Julien, P. Y. 2014. Distributed Flood Simulations On A Small Tropical Watershed With The TREX Model, Journal Of Flood Engineering. 5(1-2): 17-37

Abdullah, J., Kim, J. Julien P. Y. 2014. Hydrologic Modeling Of Extreme Events. Encyclopedia Of Natural Resources, Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1081/E-ENRW-120047597

Hernández, A. R. P, Balling, R. C. Jr., Barbar-Matinez, L. R. 2009. Comparative Analysis Of Indices Of Extreme Rainfall Events: Variation And Trend From Southern Mexico. Journal De Atmosfera. 2: 219 – 228.

World Meteorological Organization. 2009. Guidelines On Analysis Of Extremes In A Changing Climate Support Of Informed Decisions For Adaptation.

Kunkel, K. E., Andsager, K. Easterling, D. R. 1999. Long-Term Trends In Extreme Precipitation Events Over The Conterminous United States And Canada. Journal Of Climate. 12: 2515 – 2527.

Manton, M. J., Della-Marta, P. M., Haylock, M. R., Hennessy, K. J., Nicholls, N., Chambers, L. E., Collins, D. A., Daw, D., Finet, A., Gunawan, D., Inape, K., Isobe, H., Kestin, T. S., Lefale, P., Leyu, C. H., Lwin, T., Maitrepierre, L., Ouprasitwong, N., Page, C. M., Pahalad, J., Plummer, N., Salinger, M. J., Suppiah, R., Tran V, L., Trewin, B., Tibig, I. & Yee, D. 2000. Trends In Extreme Daily Rainfall And Temperature In Southeast Asia And The South Pacific: 1961 – 1999. International Journal Of Climatology. 21: 269-284.

Zin, W. Z. W., Suhaila, J., Deni, S. M. Jemain, A. A. 2009. Recent Changes In Extreme Rainfall Events In Peninsular Malaysia: 1971-2005. Theoretical And Applied Climatology. 99: 303-314.

Tangang, F. T., Juneng, L., Ahmad, S. 2006. Trend And Interannual Variability Of Temperature In Malaysia: 1961-2002. Theoretical And Applied Climatology. 18: 127-141

Griffith, G. M., Salinger, M. J., Lelau, I. 2013. Trends In Extreme Daily Rainfall Across The South Pacific And Relationship To The South Pacific Convergence Zone. International Journal Of Climatology.

Ahmad, I., Tang, D., Wang, T. F., Wang, M., Wagan, B. 2015. Precipitation Trends Over Time Using Mann-Kendall and Spearman’s rho tests in Swat River Basin, Pakistan, Advanced in Meteorology.

Saleshi, Y., Camberlin, P. 2006. Recent Changes In Dry Spell And Extreme Rainfall Events In Ethiopia. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 83: 181-191



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2012 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.
Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.