EFFECTS OF NUMBER OF CONNECTIONS AND PIPE LENGTH TO THE WATER LOSSES IN MELAKA

Munirah Hussein, Kenichi Yoneda, Nor'Azizi Othman, Zuhaida Mohd Zaki, Mohamed Hilmi Mohd Yusof

Abstract


One of the major challenges facing our water utilities is the high level of Non-Revenue Water (NRW) in the distribution networks. This paper assessed the performance of current management practices by Syarikat Air Melaka Berhad (SAMB) to deal with NRW. Information and NRW management data (from 2012 to 2013) were gathered and analysed. Statistical methods were used to evaluate the effects of pipe length and number of connections of the distribution network to the leakage level; and to determine the causes of leakage (water loss). In 2014, Melaka’s NRW percentage was 21.4% as compared to the national average of 35.6%, which is the second lowest rate among the states in Malaysia. Results of the study revealed significant positive relationships between average MNF (L/s) with number of connections and pipe length, with the prediction model of average MNF (L/s)=-4.42+1.088*10-2(NC)+1.07*10-4(PL), R2= 73.19%. The results also indicated that in a compact and urbanized city like Melaka, number of connections in the network appears to be most influential to the average MNF (water loss) (shown by a strong positive relationship, r = 0.847) as compared to the less compact zone (such as Perak) where pipe length appears to be more influential. 


Keywords


Minimum night flow (MNF), number of connections (NC), Non-Revenue Water (NRW), pipe length (PL), water loss reduction

Full Text:

PDF

References


Van der Berg, C. 2015. Drivers of Non-Revenue Water: A Cross-national Analysis. Utilities Policy. 36: 71-78.

Piarapakaran, S. 2014. Estimated Loss of Revenue Due to NRW Between 2008 and 2013 Is More Than RM 10 Billion! Association of Water and Energy Research Malaysia’s (AWER).

Liemberger, R. 2009. Water Loss Assessment and Remediation in South and Southeast Asia. Water Practice and Technology. 4(4).

Lai, C. H., Chan, N. W. 2015. Reducing Non-Revenue Water for Urban Water Sustainability: A Case Study of Penang, Malaysia.

Chan, N. W. 2004. Managing Water Resources in the 21st Century involving all Stakeholders towards Sustainable Water Resources Management in Malaysia. Centre for Graduate Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi.

Skipworth, P. J., Saul, A. J., and Machell J. 1999. The Effect of Regional Factors on Leakage Levels and the Role of Performance Indicators. Water and Environmental Journal (J.CIWEM).

Alkasseh, J. M. A., Adlan M. N., Abustan, I., Abdul Aziz, H. and Mohamad Hanif A. B. 2013. Applying Minimum Night Flow to Estimate Water Loss Using Statistical Modeling: A Case Study in Kinta Valley, Malaysia. Water Resource Management. 27(5): 1439-1455.

Cannarozzo, M., Criminisi, A., Gagliardi, M., Mazzola, M. R. 2006. Statistical Analysis of Water Main Failures in the Distribution Network of an Italian Municipality. 8th Anuual Water Distribution Systems Analysis Symposium. Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Kamarudin, N., Ismail, W. R., Ramli, N. A. 2016. Malaysian Water Utilities Performance with the Presence of Undesirable Output: A Directional Distance Function Approach. Jurnal Teknologi (Science and Engineering). 78: 4-3.

Farley, M., Wyeth, G., Md. Ghazali, Z., Istandar, A., and Singh, S. 2008. The Manager’s Non-Revenue Water Handbook: A Guide to Understanding Water Losses. Ranhill Utilities Berhad and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

Cabrera, E. and Vela, A. V. 1995. Improving Effienciency and Reliability in Water Distribution Systems. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Hunaidi, O. 2000. Detecting Leaks in Water-Distribution Pipes. Construction Technology Update No. 40. National Research Council of Canada.

Georgia Environmental Protection Division, Watershed Protection Branch 2007. Water Leak Detection and Repair Program – Guidance Document.

Farley, M., Wyeth, G., Md. Ghazali, Z., Iskandar, A., and Singh, S. 2010. The Manager’s Non-Revenue Water Handbook for Africa. United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Development Alternatives Inc (DAI).

Rizzo, A. 2012. Malta: Use of Leakage Control in Water Management Strategy. Case Study No.22, Global Water Partnership (GWP).

Clarke, B. 2015. Melaka Gets Tough on Non Revenue Water Loss: Claims Two Awards with Outstanding Results. Water Footprints (March and April 2015).

Non Revenue Water (NRW) Audit Guidelines 2014. National Audit Department of Malaysia.

Water Services Industry Performance Report 2014. Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara.

Lai, C. H., Chan, N. W. 2015. Spatial Inequalities in Malaysia’s Non-Revenue Water Rates: Issues, Challenges and Management Strategies. International Conference on Development and Socio-Spatial Inequalities (ICDSSI2015). Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Lai, C. H., Phang W. L., and Chan, N. W. 2013. A Study of Non-Revenue Water Management in Penang as an Example of Good Water Governance. Prosiding Seminar Hasil Penyelidikan Sektor Pengajian Tinggi 2013. Jilid II, Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan.

Gomes, R., Sa Marques, A., and Sousa, J. 2011. Estimation of the Benefits Yielded by Pressure Management in Water Distribution Systems. Urban Water Journal. 8(2): 65-77.

Manual of Water Supply Practices: Water Audits and Loss Control Programs 2009. Third Edition. USA: American Water Works Association.

Mutinkanga, H. E., Sharma S. K., Vairavamoorthy, K. 2011. Multi criteria Decision Analysis: A Strategic Planning Tool for Water Loss Management. Water Resource Management. 25: 3947-3969.

Warren, R. P. 2005. The Service Pipe – A Forgotten Asset in Leak Detection. IWA Specialist Conference Leakage 2005. Hallfax, Nova Scotia, Canada. 1-9.

Al-Washali, T. H., Al Omari, A., and Ribbe, L. 2011. Non-Revenue Water Management in Sana’a Water Distribution System. Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics (ITT), University of Jordan.

Yeboah, P. A., and Kayaga, M. 2008. Management of Non-Revenue Water: A Case Study of the Water Supply in Accra, Ghana. Water, Engineering and Development Centre, Department of Civil Engineering, Loughborough University.

Farley, M., and Liemberger, R. 2005. Developing a Non-Revenue Water Reduction Strategy: Planning and Implementing the Strategy. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply. 5(1): 41-50.

Mistry, P. Pressure Management to Reduce Water Demand and Leakage. Principal Officer Water Demand Management and Leakage Control. Wide Bay Water Corporation.

Mckenzie, R., Mostert, H., and Wegelin, W. 2003. Leakage Reduction by Advanced Pressure Control: Khayelitsha, South Africa. Water.

Mckenzie, R. S. Component Based Analysis for Management of Leakage in Potable Water Supply Systems.

Thornton, J. 2003. Managing Leakage by Managing Pressure: A Practical Approach, IWA Water Task Force. Water 21.

Ranhill Water Services Sdn. Bhd. 2011. Non Revenue Water (NRW) Management Strategy for Surabaya Water Company. Final Report.

Ristovski, B. 2011. Pressure Management and Active Leakage Control in Particular DMA (Lisiche) in the City of Skopje. Water Utility Journal. 2: 45-49.

Puust, R., Kapelan, Z., Savic, D. A., and Koppel, T. 2010. A Review of Methods for Leakage Management in Pipe Networks. Urban Water Journal. 7(1): 25-45.

Lalonde, A. M., Au, C., Fanner, P., and Lei, J. City of Toronto Water Loss Study and Pressure Management Pilot. Veritec Consulting, Mississauga.

Mckenzie, R., Mostert, H., and Wegelin, W. 2003. Leakage Reduction through Pressure Management in Khayelitsha. Western Cape, South Africa.

Pickard, B., Vilagos, J., Nestel, G., Lanning, D., Kuhr, S., and Fernandez, R. 2007. Reducing Non-Revenue Water – Its Good Business (A Case Study Featuring Tampa Water Department’s Non-Revenue Water Reduction Strategy Utilizing the latest AWWA Water Audit Methods and Tools). World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007: Restoring Our Natural Habitat.

Mons, J., and McIntosh, B. 2010. Strategies for Non Revenue Water Management in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Kampala, Uganda. School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University.

Koelbl, R., and Gschleiner, R. 2009. Austria’s New Guideline for Water Losses. Austrian Association of Gas and Water. Water 21.

Mutikanga, H. E., Sharma, S. K., and Vairavamoorthy, K. 2013. Methods and Tools for Managing Losses in Water Distribution Systems. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management.

Pilcher, R. 2003. Leak Detection Practices and Techniques: A Practical Approach. IWA Water Loss Task Force. Water 21.

Morrison, J. 2004. Managing Leakage by District Metered Areas: A Practical Approach. IWA Water Loss Task Force. Water 21.

Garcia, V. J., Cabrera, E., and Cabrera Jr., E. 2006. The Minimum Night Flow Method Revisited. 8th Annual Water Distribution Systems Analysis Symposium. Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Tabesh, M., Yekta A. H. A., Burrows, R. 2009. An Integrated Model to Evaluate Losses in Water Distribution Systems, Water Resource Management. 23(3): 477-492.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11113/jt.v79.9874

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright © 2012 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Disclaimer : This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.
Best viewed: Mozilla Firefox 4.0 & Google Chrome at 1024 × 768 resolution.