Habeeb Lateef Muttashar, Mohd Warid Hussin, Mohd Azreen Mohd Ariffin, Jahangir Mirza, Nor Hasanah, Ali Umara Shettima


Millions of tons of spent garnet, a by-product of surface treatment operations, are disposed of in landfills, oceans, rivers, and quarries, among others every year, thus it causes environmental problems. The main objective of this study is to evaluate spent garnet as a sand replacement in concrete prepared with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS)-based self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC). Concrete mixtures containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% spent garnet as a replacement for river sand were prepared with a constant Liquid/Binder (L/B) mass ratio equal to 0.4. Compressive, flexural and splitting tensile strengths as well as workability tests (slump, L-box, U-box and T50) were conducted on concrete containing spent garnet. As per specification and guidelines for self-compacting concrete (EFNARC) standard, the test results showed that the concrete’s workability increased with the increase of spent garnet, while all the other strength values were consistently lower than conventional concrete (SCGC) at all stages of replacement. The results recommended that spent garnet should be used in concrete as a sand replacement up to 25% to reduce environmental problems, costs and the depletion of natural resources.


Garnet, spent garnet, Geopolymer concrete, self-compacting geopolymer concrete

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